Sample usage for metrics

Metrics

Setup

>>> import pytest
>>> _ = pytest.importorskip("numpy")

The nltk.metrics package provides a variety of evaluation measures which can be used for a wide variety of NLP tasks.

>>> from nltk.metrics import *

Standard IR Scores

We can use standard scores from information retrieval to test the performance of taggers, chunkers, etc.

>>> reference = 'DET NN VB DET JJ NN NN IN DET NN'.split()
>>> test    = 'DET VB VB DET NN NN NN IN DET NN'.split()
>>> print(accuracy(reference, test))
0.8

The following measures apply to sets:

>>> reference_set = set(reference)
>>> test_set = set(test)
>>> precision(reference_set, test_set)
1.0
>>> print(recall(reference_set, test_set))
0.8
>>> print(f_measure(reference_set, test_set))
0.88888888888...

Measuring the likelihood of the data, given probability distributions:

>>> from nltk import FreqDist, MLEProbDist
>>> pdist1 = MLEProbDist(FreqDist("aldjfalskfjaldsf"))
>>> pdist2 = MLEProbDist(FreqDist("aldjfalssjjlldss"))
>>> print(log_likelihood(['a', 'd'], [pdist1, pdist2]))
-2.7075187496...

Distance Metrics

String edit distance (Levenshtein):

>>> edit_distance("rain", "shine")
3
>>> edit_distance_align("shine", "shine")
[(0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 5)]
>>> edit_distance_align("rain", "brainy")
[(0, 0), (1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (4, 6)]
>>> edit_distance_align("", "brainy")
[(0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2), (0, 3), (0, 4), (0, 5), (0, 6)]
>>> edit_distance_align("", "")
[(0, 0)]

Other distance measures:

>>> s1 = set([1,2,3,4])
>>> s2 = set([3,4,5])
>>> binary_distance(s1, s2)
1.0
>>> print(jaccard_distance(s1, s2))
0.6
>>> print(masi_distance(s1, s2))
0.868

Miscellaneous Measures

Rank Correlation works with two dictionaries mapping keys to ranks. The dictionaries should have the same set of keys.

>>> spearman_correlation({'e':1, 't':2, 'a':3}, {'e':1, 'a':2, 't':3})
0.5

Windowdiff uses a sliding window in comparing two segmentations of the same input (e.g. tokenizations, chunkings). Segmentations are represented using strings of zeros and ones.

>>> s1 = "000100000010"
>>> s2 = "000010000100"
>>> s3 = "100000010000"
>>> s4 = "000000000000"
>>> s5 = "111111111111"
>>> windowdiff(s1, s1, 3)
0.0
>>> abs(windowdiff(s1, s2, 3) - 0.3)  < 1e-6  # windowdiff(s1, s2, 3) == 0.3
True
>>> abs(windowdiff(s2, s3, 3) - 0.8)  < 1e-6  # windowdiff(s2, s3, 3) == 0.8
True
>>> windowdiff(s1, s4, 3)
0.5
>>> windowdiff(s1, s5, 3)
1.0

Confusion Matrix

>>> reference = 'This is the reference data.  Testing 123.  aoaeoeoe'
>>> test =      'Thos iz_the rifirenci data.  Testeng 123.  aoaeoeoe'
>>> print(ConfusionMatrix(reference, test))
  |   . 1 2 3 T _ a c d e f g h i n o r s t z |
--+-------------------------------------------+
  |<8>. . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
. | .<2>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
1 | . .<1>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
2 | . . .<1>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
3 | . . . .<1>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
T | . . . . .<2>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
_ | . . . . . .<.>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
a | . . . . . . .<4>. . . . . . . . . . . . . |
c | . . . . . . . .<1>. . . . . . . . . . . . |
d | . . . . . . . . .<1>. . . . . . . . . . . |
e | . . . . . . . . . .<6>. . . 3 . . . . . . |
f | . . . . . . . . . . .<1>. . . . . . . . . |
g | . . . . . . . . . . . .<1>. . . . . . . . |
h | . . . . . . . . . . . . .<2>. . . . . . . |
i | . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . .<1>. 1 . . . . |
n | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<2>. . . . . |
o | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<3>. . . . |
r | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<2>. . . |
s | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<2>. 1 |
t | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<3>. |
z | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<.>|
--+-------------------------------------------+
(row = reference; col = test)
>>> cm = ConfusionMatrix(reference, test)
>>> print(cm.pretty_format(sort_by_count=True))
  |   e a i o s t . T h n r 1 2 3 c d f g _ z |
--+-------------------------------------------+
  |<8>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . |
e | .<6>. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
a | . .<4>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
i | . 1 .<1>1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
o | . . . .<3>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
s | . . . . .<2>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 |
t | . . . . . .<3>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
. | . . . . . . .<2>. . . . . . . . . . . . . |
T | . . . . . . . .<2>. . . . . . . . . . . . |
h | . . . . . . . . .<2>. . . . . . . . . . . |
n | . . . . . . . . . .<2>. . . . . . . . . . |
r | . . . . . . . . . . .<2>. . . . . . . . . |
1 | . . . . . . . . . . . .<1>. . . . . . . . |
2 | . . . . . . . . . . . . .<1>. . . . . . . |
3 | . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<1>. . . . . . |
c | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<1>. . . . . |
d | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<1>. . . . |
f | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<1>. . . |
g | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<1>. . |
_ | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<.>. |
z | . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .<.>|
--+-------------------------------------------+
(row = reference; col = test)
>>> print(cm.pretty_format(sort_by_count=True, truncate=10))
  |   e a i o s t . T h |
--+---------------------+
  |<8>. . . . . . . . . |
e | .<6>. 3 . . . . . . |
a | . .<4>. . . . . . . |
i | . 1 .<1>1 . . . . . |
o | . . . .<3>. . . . . |
s | . . . . .<2>. . . . |
t | . . . . . .<3>. . . |
. | . . . . . . .<2>. . |
T | . . . . . . . .<2>. |
h | . . . . . . . . .<2>|
--+---------------------+
(row = reference; col = test)
>>> print(cm.pretty_format(sort_by_count=True, truncate=10, values_in_chart=False))
   |                   1 |
   | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 |
---+---------------------+
 1 |<8>. . . . . . . . . |
 2 | .<6>. 3 . . . . . . |
 3 | . .<4>. . . . . . . |
 4 | . 1 .<1>1 . . . . . |
 5 | . . . .<3>. . . . . |
 6 | . . . . .<2>. . . . |
 7 | . . . . . .<3>. . . |
 8 | . . . . . . .<2>. . |
 9 | . . . . . . . .<2>. |
10 | . . . . . . . . .<2>|
---+---------------------+
(row = reference; col = test)
Value key:
     1:
     2: e
     3: a
     4: i
     5: o
     6: s
     7: t
     8: .
     9: T
    10: h

Association measures

These measures are useful to determine whether the coocurrence of two random events is meaningful. They are used, for instance, to distinguish collocations from other pairs of adjacent words.

We bring some examples of bigram association calculations from Manning and Schutze’s SNLP, 2nd Ed. chapter 5.

>>> n_new_companies, n_new, n_companies, N = 8, 15828, 4675, 14307668
>>> bam = BigramAssocMeasures
>>> bam.raw_freq(20, (42, 20), N) == 20. / N
True
>>> bam.student_t(n_new_companies, (n_new, n_companies), N)
0.999...
>>> bam.chi_sq(n_new_companies, (n_new, n_companies), N)
1.54...
>>> bam.likelihood_ratio(150, (12593, 932), N)
1291...

For other associations, we ensure the ordering of the measures:

>>> bam.mi_like(20, (42, 20), N) > bam.mi_like(20, (41, 27), N)
True
>>> bam.pmi(20, (42, 20), N) > bam.pmi(20, (41, 27), N)
True
>>> bam.phi_sq(20, (42, 20), N) > bam.phi_sq(20, (41, 27), N)
True
>>> bam.poisson_stirling(20, (42, 20), N) > bam.poisson_stirling(20, (41, 27), N)
True
>>> bam.jaccard(20, (42, 20), N) > bam.jaccard(20, (41, 27), N)
True
>>> bam.dice(20, (42, 20), N) > bam.dice(20, (41, 27), N)
True
>>> bam.fisher(20, (42, 20), N) > bam.fisher(20, (41, 27), N) 
False

For trigrams, we have to provide more count information:

>>> n_w1_w2_w3 = 20
>>> n_w1_w2, n_w1_w3, n_w2_w3 = 35, 60, 40
>>> pair_counts = (n_w1_w2, n_w1_w3, n_w2_w3)
>>> n_w1, n_w2, n_w3 = 100, 200, 300
>>> uni_counts = (n_w1, n_w2, n_w3)
>>> N = 14307668
>>> tam = TrigramAssocMeasures
>>> tam.raw_freq(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts, N) == 1. * n_w1_w2_w3 / N
True
>>> uni_counts2 = (n_w1, n_w2, 100)
>>> tam.student_t(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts2, N) > tam.student_t(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts, N)
True
>>> tam.chi_sq(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts2, N) > tam.chi_sq(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts, N)
True
>>> tam.mi_like(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts2, N) > tam.mi_like(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts, N)
True
>>> tam.pmi(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts2, N) > tam.pmi(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts, N)
True
>>> tam.likelihood_ratio(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts2, N) > tam.likelihood_ratio(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts, N)
True
>>> tam.poisson_stirling(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts2, N) > tam.poisson_stirling(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts, N)
True
>>> tam.jaccard(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts2, N) > tam.jaccard(n_w1_w2_w3, pair_counts, uni_counts, N)
True

For fourgrams, we have to provide more count information:

>>> n_w1_w2_w3_w4 = 5
>>> n_w1_w2, n_w1_w3, n_w2_w3 = 35, 60, 40
>>> n_w1_w2_w3, n_w2_w3_w4 = 20, 10
>>> pair_counts = (n_w1_w2, n_w1_w3, n_w2_w3)
>>> triplet_counts = (n_w1_w2_w3, n_w2_w3_w4)
>>> n_w1, n_w2, n_w3, n_w4 = 100, 200, 300, 400
>>> uni_counts = (n_w1, n_w2, n_w3, n_w4)
>>> N = 14307668
>>> qam = QuadgramAssocMeasures
>>> qam.raw_freq(n_w1_w2_w3_w4, pair_counts, triplet_counts, uni_counts, N) == 1. * n_w1_w2_w3_w4 / N
True