Source code for nltk.twitter.twitter_demo

# Natural Language Toolkit: Twitter client
# Copyright (C) 2001-2023 NLTK Project
# Author: Ewan Klein <>
#         Lorenzo Rubio <>
# URL: <>
# For license information, see LICENSE.TXT

Examples to demo the :py:mod:`twitterclient` code.

These demo functions should all run, with the following caveats:

* You must have obtained API keys from Twitter, and installed them according to
  the instructions in the `twitter HOWTO <>`_.

* If you are on a slow network, some of the calls to the Twitter API may

* If you are being rate limited while searching, you will receive a 420
  error response.

* Your terminal window / console must be able to display UTF-8 encoded characters.

For documentation about the Twitter APIs, see `The Streaming APIs Overview
<>`_ and `The REST APIs Overview

For error codes see Twitter's
`Error Codes and Responses <>`

import datetime
import json
from functools import wraps
from io import StringIO

from nltk.twitter import (

SPACER = "###################################"

[docs]def verbose(func): """Decorator for demo functions""" @wraps(func) def with_formatting(*args, **kwargs): print() print(SPACER) print("Using %s" % (func.__name__)) print(SPACER) return func(*args, **kwargs) return with_formatting
[docs]def yesterday(): """ Get yesterday's datetime as a 5-tuple. """ date = date -= datetime.timedelta(days=1) date_tuple = date.timetuple()[:6] return date_tuple
[docs]def setup(): """ Initialize global variables for the demos. """ global USERIDS, FIELDS USERIDS = ["759251", "612473", "15108702", "6017542", "2673523800"] # UserIDs corresponding to\ # @CNN, @BBCNews, @ReutersLive, @BreakingNews, @AJELive FIELDS = ["id_str"]
[docs]@verbose def twitterclass_demo(): """ Use the simplified :class:`Twitter` class to write some tweets to a file. """ tw = Twitter() print("Track from the public stream\n") tw.tweets(keywords="love, hate", limit=10) # public stream print(SPACER) print("Search past Tweets\n") tw = Twitter() tw.tweets(keywords="love, hate", stream=False, limit=10) # search past tweets print(SPACER) print( "Follow two accounts in the public stream" + " -- be prepared to wait a few minutes\n" ) tw = Twitter() tw.tweets(follow=["759251", "6017542"], stream=True, limit=5) # public stream
[docs]@verbose def sampletoscreen_demo(limit=20): """ Sample from the Streaming API and send output to terminal. """ oauth = credsfromfile() client = Streamer(**oauth) client.register(TweetViewer(limit=limit)) client.sample()
[docs]@verbose def tracktoscreen_demo(track="taylor swift", limit=10): """ Track keywords from the public Streaming API and send output to terminal. """ oauth = credsfromfile() client = Streamer(**oauth) client.register(TweetViewer(limit=limit)) client.filter(track=track)
[docs]@verbose def search_demo(keywords="nltk"): """ Use the REST API to search for past tweets containing a given keyword. """ oauth = credsfromfile() client = Query(**oauth) for tweet in client.search_tweets(keywords=keywords, limit=10): print(tweet["text"])
[docs]@verbose def tweets_by_user_demo(user="NLTK_org", count=200): """ Use the REST API to search for past tweets by a given user. """ oauth = credsfromfile() client = Query(**oauth) client.register(TweetWriter()) client.user_tweets(user, count)
[docs]@verbose def lookup_by_userid_demo(): """ Use the REST API to convert a userID to a screen name. """ oauth = credsfromfile() client = Query(**oauth) user_info = client.user_info_from_id(USERIDS) for info in user_info: name = info["screen_name"] followers = info["followers_count"] following = info["friends_count"] print(f"{name}, followers: {followers}, following: {following}")
[docs]@verbose def followtoscreen_demo(limit=10): """ Using the Streaming API, select just the tweets from a specified list of userIDs. This is will only give results in a reasonable time if the users in question produce a high volume of tweets, and may even so show some delay. """ oauth = credsfromfile() client = Streamer(**oauth) client.register(TweetViewer(limit=limit)) client.statuses.filter(follow=USERIDS)
[docs]@verbose def streamtofile_demo(limit=20): """ Write 20 tweets sampled from the public Streaming API to a file. """ oauth = credsfromfile() client = Streamer(**oauth) client.register(TweetWriter(limit=limit, repeat=False)) client.statuses.sample()
[docs]@verbose def limit_by_time_demo(keywords="nltk"): """ Query the REST API for Tweets about NLTK since yesterday and send the output to terminal. This example makes the assumption that there are sufficient Tweets since yesterday for the date to be an effective cut-off. """ date = yesterday() dt_date = datetime.datetime(*date) oauth = credsfromfile() client = Query(**oauth) client.register(TweetViewer(limit=100, lower_date_limit=date)) print(f"Cutoff date: {dt_date}\n") for tweet in client.search_tweets(keywords=keywords): print("{} ".format(tweet["created_at"]), end="") client.handler.handle(tweet)
[docs]@verbose def corpusreader_demo(): """ Use `TwitterCorpusReader` tp read a file of tweets, and print out * some full tweets in JSON format; * some raw strings from the tweets (i.e., the value of the `text` field); and * the result of tokenising the raw strings. """ from nltk.corpus import twitter_samples as tweets print() print("Complete tweet documents") print(SPACER) for tweet in"tweets.20150430-223406.json")[:1]: print(json.dumps(tweet, indent=1, sort_keys=True)) print() print("Raw tweet strings:") print(SPACER) for text in tweets.strings("tweets.20150430-223406.json")[:15]: print(text) print() print("Tokenized tweet strings:") print(SPACER) for toks in tweets.tokenized("tweets.20150430-223406.json")[:15]: print(toks)
[docs]@verbose def expand_tweetids_demo(): """ Given a file object containing a list of Tweet IDs, fetch the corresponding full Tweets, if available. """ ids_f = StringIO( """\ 588665495492124672 588665495487909888 588665495508766721 588665495513006080 588665495517200384 588665495487811584 588665495525588992 588665495487844352 588665495492014081 588665495512948737""" ) oauth = credsfromfile() client = Query(**oauth) hydrated = client.expand_tweetids(ids_f) for tweet in hydrated: id_str = tweet["id_str"] print(f"id: {id_str}") text = tweet["text"] if text.startswith("@null"): text = "[Tweet not available]" print(text + "\n")
ALL = [ twitterclass_demo, sampletoscreen_demo, tracktoscreen_demo, search_demo, tweets_by_user_demo, lookup_by_userid_demo, followtoscreen_demo, streamtofile_demo, limit_by_time_demo, corpusreader_demo, expand_tweetids_demo, ] """ Select demo functions to run. E.g. replace the following line with "DEMOS = ALL[8:]" to execute only the final three demos. """ DEMOS = ALL[:] if __name__ == "__main__": setup() for demo in DEMOS: demo() print("\n" + SPACER) print("All demos completed") print(SPACER)