Source code for nltk.classify.rte_classify

# Natural Language Toolkit: RTE Classifier
# Copyright (C) 2001-2022 NLTK Project
# Author: Ewan Klein <>
# URL: <>
# For license information, see LICENSE.TXT

Simple classifier for RTE corpus.

It calculates the overlap in words and named entities between text and
hypothesis, and also whether there are words / named entities in the
hypothesis which fail to occur in the text, since this is an indicator that
the hypothesis is more informative than (i.e not entailed by) the text.

TO DO: better Named Entity classification
TO DO: add lemmatization

from nltk.classify.maxent import MaxentClassifier
from nltk.classify.util import accuracy, check_megam_config
from nltk.tokenize import RegexpTokenizer

[docs]class RTEFeatureExtractor: """ This builds a bag of words for both the text and the hypothesis after throwing away some stopwords, then calculates overlap and difference. """
[docs] def __init__(self, rtepair, stop=True, use_lemmatize=False): """ :param rtepair: a ``RTEPair`` from which features should be extracted :param stop: if ``True``, stopwords are thrown away. :type stop: bool """ self.stop = stop self.stopwords = { "a", "the", "it", "they", "of", "in", "to", "is", "have", "are", "were", "and", "very", ".", ",", } self.negwords = {"no", "not", "never", "failed", "rejected", "denied"} # Try to tokenize so that abbreviations, monetary amounts, email # addresses, URLs are single tokens. tokenizer = RegexpTokenizer(r"[\w.@:/]+|\w+|\$[\d.]+") # Get the set of word types for text and hypothesis self.text_tokens = tokenizer.tokenize(rtepair.text) self.hyp_tokens = tokenizer.tokenize(rtepair.hyp) self.text_words = set(self.text_tokens) self.hyp_words = set(self.hyp_tokens) if use_lemmatize: self.text_words = {self._lemmatize(token) for token in self.text_tokens} self.hyp_words = {self._lemmatize(token) for token in self.hyp_tokens} if self.stop: self.text_words = self.text_words - self.stopwords self.hyp_words = self.hyp_words - self.stopwords self._overlap = self.hyp_words & self.text_words self._hyp_extra = self.hyp_words - self.text_words self._txt_extra = self.text_words - self.hyp_words
[docs] def overlap(self, toktype, debug=False): """ Compute the overlap between text and hypothesis. :param toktype: distinguish Named Entities from ordinary words :type toktype: 'ne' or 'word' """ ne_overlap = {token for token in self._overlap if self._ne(token)} if toktype == "ne": if debug: print("ne overlap", ne_overlap) return ne_overlap elif toktype == "word": if debug: print("word overlap", self._overlap - ne_overlap) return self._overlap - ne_overlap else: raise ValueError("Type not recognized:'%s'" % toktype)
[docs] def hyp_extra(self, toktype, debug=True): """ Compute the extraneous material in the hypothesis. :param toktype: distinguish Named Entities from ordinary words :type toktype: 'ne' or 'word' """ ne_extra = {token for token in self._hyp_extra if self._ne(token)} if toktype == "ne": return ne_extra elif toktype == "word": return self._hyp_extra - ne_extra else: raise ValueError("Type not recognized: '%s'" % toktype)
@staticmethod def _ne(token): """ This just assumes that words in all caps or titles are named entities. :type token: str """ if token.istitle() or token.isupper(): return True return False @staticmethod def _lemmatize(word): """ Use morphy from WordNet to find the base form of verbs. """ lemma = nltk.corpus.wordnet.morphy(word, pos=nltk.corpus.wordnet.VERB) if lemma is not None: return lemma return word
[docs]def rte_features(rtepair): extractor = RTEFeatureExtractor(rtepair) features = {} features["alwayson"] = True features["word_overlap"] = len(extractor.overlap("word")) features["word_hyp_extra"] = len(extractor.hyp_extra("word")) features["ne_overlap"] = len(extractor.overlap("ne")) features["ne_hyp_extra"] = len(extractor.hyp_extra("ne")) features["neg_txt"] = len(extractor.negwords & extractor.text_words) features["neg_hyp"] = len(extractor.negwords & extractor.hyp_words) return features
[docs]def rte_featurize(rte_pairs): return [(rte_features(pair), pair.value) for pair in rte_pairs]
[docs]def rte_classifier(algorithm, sample_N=None): from nltk.corpus import rte as rte_corpus train_set = rte_corpus.pairs(["rte1_dev.xml", "rte2_dev.xml", "rte3_dev.xml"]) test_set = rte_corpus.pairs(["rte1_test.xml", "rte2_test.xml", "rte3_test.xml"]) if sample_N is not None: train_set = train_set[:sample_N] test_set = test_set[:sample_N] featurized_train_set = rte_featurize(train_set) featurized_test_set = rte_featurize(test_set) # Train the classifier print("Training classifier...") if algorithm in ["megam"]: # MEGAM based algorithms. clf = MaxentClassifier.train(featurized_train_set, algorithm) elif algorithm in ["GIS", "IIS"]: # Use default GIS/IIS MaxEnt algorithm clf = MaxentClassifier.train(featurized_train_set, algorithm) else: err_msg = str( "RTEClassifier only supports these algorithms:\n " "'megam', 'GIS', 'IIS'.\n" ) raise Exception(err_msg) print("Testing classifier...") acc = accuracy(clf, featurized_test_set) print("Accuracy: %6.4f" % acc) return clf