Source code for nltk.translate.ibm4

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# Natural Language Toolkit: IBM Model 4
#
# Copyright (C) 2001-2019 NLTK Project
# Author: Tah Wei Hoon <hoon.tw@gmail.com>
# URL: <http://nltk.org/>
# For license information, see LICENSE.TXT

"""
Translation model that reorders output words based on their type and
distance from other related words in the output sentence.

IBM Model 4 improves the distortion model of Model 3, motivated by the
observation that certain words tend to be re-ordered in a predictable
way relative to one another. For example, <adjective><noun> in English
usually has its order flipped as <noun><adjective> in French.

Model 4 requires words in the source and target vocabularies to be
categorized into classes. This can be linguistically driven, like parts
of speech (adjective, nouns, prepositions, etc). Word classes can also
be obtained by statistical methods. The original IBM Model 4 uses an
information theoretic approach to group words into 50 classes for each
vocabulary.

Terminology:
Cept:
    A source word with non-zero fertility i.e. aligned to one or more
    target words.
Tablet:
    The set of target word(s) aligned to a cept.
Head of cept:
    The first word of the tablet of that cept.
Center of cept:
    The average position of the words in that cept's tablet. If the
    value is not an integer, the ceiling is taken.
    For example, for a tablet with words in positions 2, 5, 6 in the
    target sentence, the center of the corresponding cept is
    ceil((2 + 5 + 6) / 3) = 5
Displacement:
    For a head word, defined as (position of head word - position of
    previous cept's center). Can be positive or negative.
    For a non-head word, defined as (position of non-head word -
    position of previous word in the same tablet). Always positive,
    because successive words in a tablet are assumed to appear to the
    right of the previous word.

In contrast to Model 3 which reorders words in a tablet independently of
other words, Model 4 distinguishes between three cases.
(1) Words generated by NULL are distributed uniformly.
(2) For a head word t, its position is modeled by the probability
    d_head(displacement | word_class_s(s),word_class_t(t)),
    where s is the previous cept, and word_class_s and word_class_t maps
    s and t to a source and target language word class respectively.
(3) For a non-head word t, its position is modeled by the probability
    d_non_head(displacement | word_class_t(t))

The EM algorithm used in Model 4 is:
E step - In the training data, collect counts, weighted by prior
         probabilities.
         (a) count how many times a source language word is translated
             into a target language word
         (b) for a particular word class, count how many times a head
             word is located at a particular displacement from the
             previous cept's center
         (c) for a particular word class, count how many times a
             non-head word is located at a particular displacement from
             the previous target word
         (d) count how many times a source word is aligned to phi number
             of target words
         (e) count how many times NULL is aligned to a target word

M step - Estimate new probabilities based on the counts from the E step

Like Model 3, there are too many possible alignments to consider. Thus,
a hill climbing approach is used to sample good candidates.


Notations:
i: Position in the source sentence
    Valid values are 0 (for NULL), 1, 2, ..., length of source sentence
j: Position in the target sentence
    Valid values are 1, 2, ..., length of target sentence
l: Number of words in the source sentence, excluding NULL
m: Number of words in the target sentence
s: A word in the source language
t: A word in the target language
phi: Fertility, the number of target words produced by a source word
p1: Probability that a target word produced by a source word is
    accompanied by another target word that is aligned to NULL
p0: 1 - p1
dj: Displacement, Δj


References:
Philipp Koehn. 2010. Statistical Machine Translation.
Cambridge University Press, New York.

Peter E Brown, Stephen A. Della Pietra, Vincent J. Della Pietra, and
Robert L. Mercer. 1993. The Mathematics of Statistical Machine
Translation: Parameter Estimation. Computational Linguistics, 19 (2),
263-311.
"""

from __future__ import division

import warnings
from collections import defaultdict
from math import factorial

from nltk.translate import AlignedSent
from nltk.translate import Alignment
from nltk.translate import IBMModel
from nltk.translate import IBMModel3
from nltk.translate.ibm_model import Counts
from nltk.translate.ibm_model import longest_target_sentence_length


[docs]class IBMModel4(IBMModel): """ Translation model that reorders output words based on their type and their distance from other related words in the output sentence >>> bitext = [] >>> bitext.append(AlignedSent(['klein', 'ist', 'das', 'haus'], ['the', 'house', 'is', 'small'])) >>> bitext.append(AlignedSent(['das', 'haus', 'war', 'ja', 'groß'], ['the', 'house', 'was', 'big'])) >>> bitext.append(AlignedSent(['das', 'buch', 'ist', 'ja', 'klein'], ['the', 'book', 'is', 'small'])) >>> bitext.append(AlignedSent(['ein', 'haus', 'ist', 'klein'], ['a', 'house', 'is', 'small'])) >>> bitext.append(AlignedSent(['das', 'haus'], ['the', 'house'])) >>> bitext.append(AlignedSent(['das', 'buch'], ['the', 'book'])) >>> bitext.append(AlignedSent(['ein', 'buch'], ['a', 'book'])) >>> bitext.append(AlignedSent(['ich', 'fasse', 'das', 'buch', 'zusammen'], ['i', 'summarize', 'the', 'book'])) >>> bitext.append(AlignedSent(['fasse', 'zusammen'], ['summarize'])) >>> src_classes = {'the': 0, 'a': 0, 'small': 1, 'big': 1, 'house': 2, 'book': 2, 'is': 3, 'was': 3, 'i': 4, 'summarize': 5 } >>> trg_classes = {'das': 0, 'ein': 0, 'haus': 1, 'buch': 1, 'klein': 2, 'groß': 2, 'ist': 3, 'war': 3, 'ja': 4, 'ich': 5, 'fasse': 6, 'zusammen': 6 } >>> ibm4 = IBMModel4(bitext, 5, src_classes, trg_classes) >>> print(round(ibm4.translation_table['buch']['book'], 3)) 1.0 >>> print(round(ibm4.translation_table['das']['book'], 3)) 0.0 >>> print(round(ibm4.translation_table['ja'][None], 3)) 1.0 >>> print(round(ibm4.head_distortion_table[1][0][1], 3)) 1.0 >>> print(round(ibm4.head_distortion_table[2][0][1], 3)) 0.0 >>> print(round(ibm4.non_head_distortion_table[3][6], 3)) 0.5 >>> print(round(ibm4.fertility_table[2]['summarize'], 3)) 1.0 >>> print(round(ibm4.fertility_table[1]['book'], 3)) 1.0 >>> print(ibm4.p1) 0.033... >>> test_sentence = bitext[2] >>> test_sentence.words ['das', 'buch', 'ist', 'ja', 'klein'] >>> test_sentence.mots ['the', 'book', 'is', 'small'] >>> test_sentence.alignment Alignment([(0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, None), (4, 3)]) """ def __init__( self, sentence_aligned_corpus, iterations, source_word_classes, target_word_classes, probability_tables=None, ): """ Train on ``sentence_aligned_corpus`` and create a lexical translation model, distortion models, a fertility model, and a model for generating NULL-aligned words. Translation direction is from ``AlignedSent.mots`` to ``AlignedSent.words``. :param sentence_aligned_corpus: Sentence-aligned parallel corpus :type sentence_aligned_corpus: list(AlignedSent) :param iterations: Number of iterations to run training algorithm :type iterations: int :param source_word_classes: Lookup table that maps a source word to its word class, the latter represented by an integer id :type source_word_classes: dict[str]: int :param target_word_classes: Lookup table that maps a target word to its word class, the latter represented by an integer id :type target_word_classes: dict[str]: int :param probability_tables: Optional. Use this to pass in custom probability values. If not specified, probabilities will be set to a uniform distribution, or some other sensible value. If specified, all the following entries must be present: ``translation_table``, ``alignment_table``, ``fertility_table``, ``p1``, ``head_distortion_table``, ``non_head_distortion_table``. See ``IBMModel`` and ``IBMModel4`` for the type and purpose of these tables. :type probability_tables: dict[str]: object """ super(IBMModel4, self).__init__(sentence_aligned_corpus) self.reset_probabilities() self.src_classes = source_word_classes self.trg_classes = target_word_classes if probability_tables is None: # Get probabilities from IBM model 3 ibm3 = IBMModel3(sentence_aligned_corpus, iterations) self.translation_table = ibm3.translation_table self.alignment_table = ibm3.alignment_table self.fertility_table = ibm3.fertility_table self.p1 = ibm3.p1 self.set_uniform_probabilities(sentence_aligned_corpus) else: # Set user-defined probabilities self.translation_table = probability_tables['translation_table'] self.alignment_table = probability_tables['alignment_table'] self.fertility_table = probability_tables['fertility_table'] self.p1 = probability_tables['p1'] self.head_distortion_table = probability_tables['head_distortion_table'] self.non_head_distortion_table = probability_tables[ 'non_head_distortion_table' ] for n in range(0, iterations): self.train(sentence_aligned_corpus)
[docs] def reset_probabilities(self): super(IBMModel4, self).reset_probabilities() self.head_distortion_table = defaultdict( lambda: defaultdict(lambda: defaultdict(lambda: self.MIN_PROB)) ) """ dict[int][int][int]: float. Probability(displacement of head word | word class of previous cept,target word class). Values accessed as ``distortion_table[dj][src_class][trg_class]``. """ self.non_head_distortion_table = defaultdict( lambda: defaultdict(lambda: self.MIN_PROB) ) """ dict[int][int]: float. Probability(displacement of non-head word | target word class). Values accessed as ``distortion_table[dj][trg_class]``. """
[docs] def set_uniform_probabilities(self, sentence_aligned_corpus): """ Set distortion probabilities uniformly to 1 / cardinality of displacement values """ max_m = longest_target_sentence_length(sentence_aligned_corpus) # The maximum displacement is m-1, when a word is in the last # position m of the target sentence and the previously placed # word is in the first position. # Conversely, the minimum displacement is -(m-1). # Thus, the displacement range is (m-1) - (-(m-1)). Note that # displacement cannot be zero and is not included in the range. if max_m <= 1: initial_prob = IBMModel.MIN_PROB else: initial_prob = 1 / (2 * (max_m - 1)) if initial_prob < IBMModel.MIN_PROB: warnings.warn( "A target sentence is too long (" + str(max_m) + " words). Results may be less accurate." ) for dj in range(1, max_m): self.head_distortion_table[dj] = defaultdict( lambda: defaultdict(lambda: initial_prob) ) self.head_distortion_table[-dj] = defaultdict( lambda: defaultdict(lambda: initial_prob) ) self.non_head_distortion_table[dj] = defaultdict(lambda: initial_prob) self.non_head_distortion_table[-dj] = defaultdict(lambda: initial_prob)
[docs] def train(self, parallel_corpus): counts = Model4Counts() for aligned_sentence in parallel_corpus: m = len(aligned_sentence.words) # Sample the alignment space sampled_alignments, best_alignment = self.sample(aligned_sentence) # Record the most probable alignment aligned_sentence.alignment = Alignment( best_alignment.zero_indexed_alignment() ) # E step (a): Compute normalization factors to weigh counts total_count = self.prob_of_alignments(sampled_alignments) # E step (b): Collect counts for alignment_info in sampled_alignments: count = self.prob_t_a_given_s(alignment_info) normalized_count = count / total_count for j in range(1, m + 1): counts.update_lexical_translation( normalized_count, alignment_info, j ) counts.update_distortion( normalized_count, alignment_info, j, self.src_classes, self.trg_classes, ) counts.update_null_generation(normalized_count, alignment_info) counts.update_fertility(normalized_count, alignment_info) # M step: Update probabilities with maximum likelihood estimates # If any probability is less than MIN_PROB, clamp it to MIN_PROB existing_alignment_table = self.alignment_table self.reset_probabilities() self.alignment_table = existing_alignment_table # don't retrain self.maximize_lexical_translation_probabilities(counts) self.maximize_distortion_probabilities(counts) self.maximize_fertility_probabilities(counts) self.maximize_null_generation_probabilities(counts)
[docs] def maximize_distortion_probabilities(self, counts): head_d_table = self.head_distortion_table for dj, src_classes in counts.head_distortion.items(): for s_cls, trg_classes in src_classes.items(): for t_cls in trg_classes: estimate = ( counts.head_distortion[dj][s_cls][t_cls] / counts.head_distortion_for_any_dj[s_cls][t_cls] ) head_d_table[dj][s_cls][t_cls] = max(estimate, IBMModel.MIN_PROB) non_head_d_table = self.non_head_distortion_table for dj, trg_classes in counts.non_head_distortion.items(): for t_cls in trg_classes: estimate = ( counts.non_head_distortion[dj][t_cls] / counts.non_head_distortion_for_any_dj[t_cls] ) non_head_d_table[dj][t_cls] = max(estimate, IBMModel.MIN_PROB)
[docs] def prob_t_a_given_s(self, alignment_info): """ Probability of target sentence and an alignment given the source sentence """ return IBMModel4.model4_prob_t_a_given_s(alignment_info, self)
[docs] @staticmethod # exposed for Model 5 to use def model4_prob_t_a_given_s(alignment_info, ibm_model): probability = 1.0 MIN_PROB = IBMModel.MIN_PROB def null_generation_term(): # Binomial distribution: B(m - null_fertility, p1) value = 1.0 p1 = ibm_model.p1 p0 = 1 - p1 null_fertility = alignment_info.fertility_of_i(0) m = len(alignment_info.trg_sentence) - 1 value *= pow(p1, null_fertility) * pow(p0, m - 2 * null_fertility) if value < MIN_PROB: return MIN_PROB # Combination: (m - null_fertility) choose null_fertility for i in range(1, null_fertility + 1): value *= (m - null_fertility - i + 1) / i return value def fertility_term(): value = 1.0 src_sentence = alignment_info.src_sentence for i in range(1, len(src_sentence)): fertility = alignment_info.fertility_of_i(i) value *= ( factorial(fertility) * ibm_model.fertility_table[fertility][src_sentence[i]] ) if value < MIN_PROB: return MIN_PROB return value def lexical_translation_term(j): t = alignment_info.trg_sentence[j] i = alignment_info.alignment[j] s = alignment_info.src_sentence[i] return ibm_model.translation_table[t][s] def distortion_term(j): t = alignment_info.trg_sentence[j] i = alignment_info.alignment[j] if i == 0: # case 1: t is aligned to NULL return 1.0 if alignment_info.is_head_word(j): # case 2: t is the first word of a tablet previous_cept = alignment_info.previous_cept(j) src_class = None if previous_cept is not None: previous_s = alignment_info.src_sentence[previous_cept] src_class = ibm_model.src_classes[previous_s] trg_class = ibm_model.trg_classes[t] dj = j - alignment_info.center_of_cept(previous_cept) return ibm_model.head_distortion_table[dj][src_class][trg_class] # case 3: t is a subsequent word of a tablet previous_position = alignment_info.previous_in_tablet(j) trg_class = ibm_model.trg_classes[t] dj = j - previous_position return ibm_model.non_head_distortion_table[dj][trg_class] # end nested functions # Abort computation whenever probability falls below MIN_PROB at # any point, since MIN_PROB can be considered as zero probability *= null_generation_term() if probability < MIN_PROB: return MIN_PROB probability *= fertility_term() if probability < MIN_PROB: return MIN_PROB for j in range(1, len(alignment_info.trg_sentence)): probability *= lexical_translation_term(j) if probability < MIN_PROB: return MIN_PROB probability *= distortion_term(j) if probability < MIN_PROB: return MIN_PROB return probability
[docs]class Model4Counts(Counts): """ Data object to store counts of various parameters during training. Includes counts for distortion. """ def __init__(self): super(Model4Counts, self).__init__() self.head_distortion = defaultdict( lambda: defaultdict(lambda: defaultdict(lambda: 0.0)) ) self.head_distortion_for_any_dj = defaultdict(lambda: defaultdict(lambda: 0.0)) self.non_head_distortion = defaultdict(lambda: defaultdict(lambda: 0.0)) self.non_head_distortion_for_any_dj = defaultdict(lambda: 0.0)
[docs] def update_distortion(self, count, alignment_info, j, src_classes, trg_classes): i = alignment_info.alignment[j] t = alignment_info.trg_sentence[j] if i == 0: # case 1: t is aligned to NULL pass elif alignment_info.is_head_word(j): # case 2: t is the first word of a tablet previous_cept = alignment_info.previous_cept(j) if previous_cept is not None: previous_src_word = alignment_info.src_sentence[previous_cept] src_class = src_classes[previous_src_word] else: src_class = None trg_class = trg_classes[t] dj = j - alignment_info.center_of_cept(previous_cept) self.head_distortion[dj][src_class][trg_class] += count self.head_distortion_for_any_dj[src_class][trg_class] += count else: # case 3: t is a subsequent word of a tablet previous_j = alignment_info.previous_in_tablet(j) trg_class = trg_classes[t] dj = j - previous_j self.non_head_distortion[dj][trg_class] += count self.non_head_distortion_for_any_dj[trg_class] += count