Source code for nltk.data

# Natural Language Toolkit: Utility functions
#
# Copyright (C) 2001-2017 NLTK Project
# Author: Edward Loper <edloper@gmail.com>
# URL: <http://nltk.org/>
# For license information, see LICENSE.TXT

"""
Functions to find and load NLTK resource files, such as corpora,
grammars, and saved processing objects.  Resource files are identified
using URLs, such as ``nltk:corpora/abc/rural.txt`` or
``http://nltk.org/sample/toy.cfg``.  The following URL protocols are
supported:

  - ``file:path``: Specifies the file whose path is *path*.
    Both relative and absolute paths may be used.

  - ``http://host/path``: Specifies the file stored on the web
    server *host* at path *path*.

  - ``nltk:path``: Specifies the file stored in the NLTK data
    package at *path*.  NLTK will search for these files in the
    directories specified by ``nltk.data.path``.

If no protocol is specified, then the default protocol ``nltk:`` will
be used.

This module provides to functions that can be used to access a
resource file, given its URL: ``load()`` loads a given resource, and
adds it to a resource cache; and ``retrieve()`` copies a given resource
to a local file.
"""
from __future__ import print_function, unicode_literals
from __future__ import division
from abc import ABCMeta, abstractmethod
from six import add_metaclass

import sys
import io
import os
import textwrap
import re
import zipfile
import codecs

from gzip import GzipFile, READ as GZ_READ, WRITE as GZ_WRITE

try:
    from zlib import Z_SYNC_FLUSH as FLUSH
except ImportError:
    from zlib import Z_FINISH as FLUSH

try:
    import cPickle as pickle
except ImportError:
    import pickle

from six import string_types, text_type
from six.moves.urllib.request import urlopen, url2pathname

# this import should be more specific:
import nltk
from nltk.compat import py3_data, add_py3_data, BytesIO

######################################################################
# Search Path
######################################################################

path = []
"""A list of directories where the NLTK data package might reside.
   These directories will be checked in order when looking for a
   resource in the data package.  Note that this allows users to
   substitute in their own versions of resources, if they have them
   (e.g., in their home directory under ~/nltk_data)."""

# User-specified locations:
_paths_from_env = os.environ.get('NLTK_DATA', str('')).split(os.pathsep)
path += [d for d in _paths_from_env if d]
if 'APPENGINE_RUNTIME' not in os.environ and os.path.expanduser('~/') != '~/':
    path.append(os.path.expanduser(str('~/nltk_data')))

if sys.platform.startswith('win'):
    # Common locations on Windows:
    path += [
        str(r'C:\nltk_data'), str(r'D:\nltk_data'), str(r'E:\nltk_data'),
        os.path.join(sys.prefix, str('nltk_data')),
        os.path.join(sys.prefix, str('lib'), str('nltk_data')),
        os.path.join(
            os.environ.get(str('APPDATA'), str('C:\\')), str('nltk_data'))
    ]
else:
    # Common locations on UNIX & OS X:
    path += [
        str('/usr/share/nltk_data'),
        str('/usr/local/share/nltk_data'),
        str('/usr/lib/nltk_data'),
        str('/usr/local/lib/nltk_data')
    ]


######################################################################
# Util Functions
######################################################################

def gzip_open_unicode(filename, mode="rb", compresslevel=9, encoding='utf-8',
                      fileobj=None, errors=None, newline=None):
    if fileobj is None:
        fileobj = GzipFile(filename, mode, compresslevel, fileobj)
    return io.TextIOWrapper(fileobj, encoding, errors, newline)


def split_resource_url(resource_url):
    """
    Splits a resource url into "<protocol>:<path>".

    >>> windows = sys.platform.startswith('win')
    >>> split_resource_url('nltk:home/nltk')
    ('nltk', 'home/nltk')
    >>> split_resource_url('nltk:/home/nltk')
    ('nltk', '/home/nltk')
    >>> split_resource_url('file:/home/nltk')
    ('file', '/home/nltk')
    >>> split_resource_url('file:///home/nltk')
    ('file', '/home/nltk')
    >>> split_resource_url('file:///C:/home/nltk')
    ('file', '/C:/home/nltk')
    """
    protocol, path_ = resource_url.split(':', 1)
    if protocol == 'nltk':
        pass
    elif protocol == 'file':
        if path_.startswith('/'):
            path_ = '/' + path_.lstrip('/')
    else:
        path_ = re.sub(r'^/{0,2}', '', path_)
    return protocol, path_


def normalize_resource_url(resource_url):
    r"""
    Normalizes a resource url

    >>> windows = sys.platform.startswith('win')
    >>> os.path.normpath(split_resource_url(normalize_resource_url('file:grammar.fcfg'))[1]) == \
    ... ('\\' if windows else '') + os.path.abspath(os.path.join(os.curdir, 'grammar.fcfg'))
    True
    >>> not windows or normalize_resource_url('file:C:/dir/file') == 'file:///C:/dir/file'
    True
    >>> not windows or normalize_resource_url('file:C:\\dir\\file') == 'file:///C:/dir/file'
    True
    >>> not windows or normalize_resource_url('file:C:\\dir/file') == 'file:///C:/dir/file'
    True
    >>> not windows or normalize_resource_url('file://C:/dir/file') == 'file:///C:/dir/file'
    True
    >>> not windows or normalize_resource_url('file:////C:/dir/file') == 'file:///C:/dir/file'
    True
    >>> not windows or normalize_resource_url('nltk:C:/dir/file') == 'file:///C:/dir/file'
    True
    >>> not windows or normalize_resource_url('nltk:C:\\dir\\file') == 'file:///C:/dir/file'
    True
    >>> windows or normalize_resource_url('file:/dir/file/toy.cfg') == 'file:///dir/file/toy.cfg'
    True
    >>> normalize_resource_url('nltk:home/nltk')
    'nltk:home/nltk'
    >>> windows or normalize_resource_url('nltk:/home/nltk') == 'file:///home/nltk'
    True
    >>> normalize_resource_url('http://example.com/dir/file')
    'http://example.com/dir/file'
    >>> normalize_resource_url('dir/file')
    'nltk:dir/file'
    """
    try:
        protocol, name = split_resource_url(resource_url)
    except ValueError:
        # the resource url has no protocol, use the nltk protocol by default
        protocol = 'nltk'
        name = resource_url
    # use file protocol if the path is an absolute path
    if protocol == 'nltk' and os.path.isabs(name):
        protocol = 'file://'
        name = normalize_resource_name(name, False, None)
    elif protocol == 'file':
        protocol = 'file://'
        # name is absolute
        name = normalize_resource_name(name, False, None)
    elif protocol == 'nltk':
        protocol = 'nltk:'
        name = normalize_resource_name(name, True)
    else:
        # handled by urllib
        protocol += '://'
    return ''.join([protocol, name])


def normalize_resource_name(resource_name, allow_relative=True, relative_path=None):
    """
    :type resource_name: str or unicode
    :param resource_name: The name of the resource to search for.
        Resource names are posix-style relative path names, such as
        ``corpora/brown``.  Directory names will automatically
        be converted to a platform-appropriate path separator.
        Directory trailing slashes are preserved

    >>> windows = sys.platform.startswith('win')
    >>> normalize_resource_name('.', True)
    './'
    >>> normalize_resource_name('./', True)
    './'
    >>> windows or normalize_resource_name('dir/file', False, '/') == '/dir/file'
    True
    >>> not windows or normalize_resource_name('C:/file', False, '/') == '/C:/file'
    True
    >>> windows or normalize_resource_name('/dir/file', False, '/') == '/dir/file'
    True
    >>> windows or normalize_resource_name('../dir/file', False, '/') == '/dir/file'
    True
    >>> not windows or normalize_resource_name('/dir/file', True, '/') == 'dir/file'
    True
    >>> windows or normalize_resource_name('/dir/file', True, '/') == '/dir/file'
    True
    """
    is_dir = bool(re.search(r'[\\/.]$', resource_name)) or resource_name.endswith(os.path.sep)
    if sys.platform.startswith('win'):
        resource_name = resource_name.lstrip('/')
    else:
        resource_name = re.sub(r'^/+', '/', resource_name)
    if allow_relative:
        resource_name = os.path.normpath(resource_name)
    else:
        if relative_path is None:
            relative_path = os.curdir
        resource_name = os.path.abspath(
            os.path.join(relative_path, resource_name))
    resource_name = resource_name.replace('\\', '/').replace(os.path.sep, '/')
    if sys.platform.startswith('win') and os.path.isabs(resource_name):
        resource_name = '/' + resource_name
    if is_dir and not resource_name.endswith('/'):
        resource_name += '/'
    return resource_name


######################################################################
# Path Pointers
######################################################################

@add_metaclass(ABCMeta)
[docs]class PathPointer(object): """ An abstract base class for 'path pointers,' used by NLTK's data package to identify specific paths. Two subclasses exist: ``FileSystemPathPointer`` identifies a file that can be accessed directly via a given absolute path. ``ZipFilePathPointer`` identifies a file contained within a zipfile, that can be accessed by reading that zipfile. """ @abstractmethod
[docs] def open(self, encoding=None): """ Return a seekable read-only stream that can be used to read the contents of the file identified by this path pointer. :raise IOError: If the path specified by this pointer does not contain a readable file. """
@abstractmethod
[docs] def file_size(self): """ Return the size of the file pointed to by this path pointer, in bytes. :raise IOError: If the path specified by this pointer does not contain a readable file. """
@abstractmethod
[docs] def join(self, fileid): """ Return a new path pointer formed by starting at the path identified by this pointer, and then following the relative path given by ``fileid``. The path components of ``fileid`` should be separated by forward slashes, regardless of the underlying file system's path seperator character. """
[docs]class FileSystemPathPointer(PathPointer, text_type): """ A path pointer that identifies a file which can be accessed directly via a given absolute path. """ @py3_data def __init__(self, _path): """ Create a new path pointer for the given absolute path. :raise IOError: If the given path does not exist. """ _path = os.path.abspath(_path) if not os.path.exists(_path): raise IOError('No such file or directory: %r' % _path) self._path = _path # There's no need to call str.__init__(), since it's a no-op; # str does all of its setup work in __new__. @property def path(self): """The absolute path identified by this path pointer.""" return self._path
[docs] def open(self, encoding=None): stream = open(self._path, 'rb') if encoding is not None: stream = SeekableUnicodeStreamReader(stream, encoding) return stream
[docs] def file_size(self): return os.stat(self._path).st_size
[docs] def join(self, fileid): _path = os.path.join(self._path, fileid) return FileSystemPathPointer(_path)
def __repr__(self): # This should be a byte string under Python 2.x; # we don't want transliteration here so # @python_2_unicode_compatible is not used. return str('FileSystemPathPointer(%r)' % self._path) def __str__(self): return self._path
[docs]class BufferedGzipFile(GzipFile): """ A ``GzipFile`` subclass that buffers calls to ``read()`` and ``write()``. This allows faster reads and writes of data to and from gzip-compressed files at the cost of using more memory. The default buffer size is 2MB. ``BufferedGzipFile`` is useful for loading large gzipped pickle objects as well as writing large encoded feature files for classifier training. """ MB = 2 ** 20 SIZE = 2 * MB @py3_data def __init__(self, filename=None, mode=None, compresslevel=9, fileobj=None, **kwargs): """ Return a buffered gzip file object. :param filename: a filesystem path :type filename: str :param mode: a file mode which can be any of 'r', 'rb', 'a', 'ab', 'w', or 'wb' :type mode: str :param compresslevel: The compresslevel argument is an integer from 1 to 9 controlling the level of compression; 1 is fastest and produces the least compression, and 9 is slowest and produces the most compression. The default is 9. :type compresslevel: int :param fileobj: a BytesIO stream to read from instead of a file. :type fileobj: BytesIO :param size: number of bytes to buffer during calls to read() and write() :type size: int :rtype: BufferedGzipFile """ GzipFile.__init__(self, filename, mode, compresslevel, fileobj) self._size = kwargs.get('size', self.SIZE) self._nltk_buffer = BytesIO() # cStringIO does not support len. self._len = 0 def _reset_buffer(self): # For some reason calling BytesIO.truncate() here will lead to # inconsistent writes so just set _buffer to a new BytesIO object. self._nltk_buffer = BytesIO() self._len = 0 def _write_buffer(self, data): # Simply write to the buffer and increment the buffer size. if data is not None: self._nltk_buffer.write(data) self._len += len(data) def _write_gzip(self, data): # Write the current buffer to the GzipFile. GzipFile.write(self, self._nltk_buffer.getvalue()) # Then reset the buffer and write the new data to the buffer. self._reset_buffer() self._write_buffer(data)
[docs] def close(self): # GzipFile.close() doesn't actuallly close anything. if self.mode == GZ_WRITE: self._write_gzip(None) self._reset_buffer() return GzipFile.close(self)
[docs] def flush(self, lib_mode=FLUSH): self._nltk_buffer.flush() GzipFile.flush(self, lib_mode)
[docs] def read(self, size=None): if not size: size = self._size contents = BytesIO() while True: blocks = GzipFile.read(self, size) if not blocks: contents.flush() break contents.write(blocks) return contents.getvalue() else: return GzipFile.read(self, size)
[docs] def write(self, data, size=-1): """ :param data: bytes to write to file or buffer :type data: bytes :param size: buffer at least size bytes before writing to file :type size: int """ if not size: size = self._size if self._len + len(data) <= size: self._write_buffer(data) else: self._write_gzip(data)
[docs]class GzipFileSystemPathPointer(FileSystemPathPointer): """ A subclass of ``FileSystemPathPointer`` that identifies a gzip-compressed file located at a given absolute path. ``GzipFileSystemPathPointer`` is appropriate for loading large gzip-compressed pickle objects efficiently. """
[docs] def open(self, encoding=None): # Note: In >= Python3.5, GzipFile is already using a # buffered reader in the backend which has a variable self._buffer # See https://github.com/nltk/nltk/issues/1308 if sys.version.startswith('2.7') or sys.version.startswith('3.4'): stream = BufferedGzipFile(self._path, 'rb') else: stream = GzipFile(self._path, 'rb') if encoding: stream = SeekableUnicodeStreamReader(stream, encoding) return stream
class ZipFilePathPointer(PathPointer): """ A path pointer that identifies a file contained within a zipfile, which can be accessed by reading that zipfile. """ @py3_data def __init__(self, zipfile, entry=''): """ Create a new path pointer pointing at the specified entry in the given zipfile. :raise IOError: If the given zipfile does not exist, or if it does not contain the specified entry. """ if isinstance(zipfile, string_types): zipfile = OpenOnDemandZipFile(os.path.abspath(zipfile)) # Normalize the entry string, it should be relative: entry = normalize_resource_name(entry, True, '/').lstrip('/') # Check that the entry exists: if entry: try: zipfile.getinfo(entry) except Exception: # Sometimes directories aren't explicitly listed in # the zip file. So if `entry` is a directory name, # then check if the zipfile contains any files that # are under the given directory. if (entry.endswith('/') and [n for n in zipfile.namelist() if n.startswith(entry)]): pass # zipfile contains a file in that directory. else: # Otherwise, complain. raise IOError('Zipfile %r does not contain %r' % (zipfile.filename, entry)) self._zipfile = zipfile self._entry = entry @property def zipfile(self): """ The zipfile.ZipFile object used to access the zip file containing the entry identified by this path pointer. """ return self._zipfile @property def entry(self): """ The name of the file within zipfile that this path pointer points to. """ return self._entry def open(self, encoding=None): data = self._zipfile.read(self._entry) stream = BytesIO(data) if self._entry.endswith('.gz'): # Note: In >= Python3.5, GzipFile is already using a # buffered reader in the backend which has a variable self._buffer # See https://github.com/nltk/nltk/issues/1308 if sys.version.startswith('2.7') or sys.version.startswith('3.4'): stream = BufferedGzipFile(self._entry, fileobj=stream) else: stream = GzipFile(self._entry, fileobj=stream) elif encoding is not None: stream = SeekableUnicodeStreamReader(stream, encoding) return stream def file_size(self): return self._zipfile.getinfo(self._entry).file_size def join(self, fileid): entry = '%s/%s' % (self._entry, fileid) return ZipFilePathPointer(self._zipfile, entry) def __repr__(self): return str('ZipFilePathPointer(%r, %r)') % ( self._zipfile.filename, self._entry) def __str__(self): return os.path.normpath(os.path.join(self._zipfile.filename, self._entry)) ###################################################################### # Access Functions ###################################################################### # Don't use a weak dictionary, because in the common case this # causes a lot more reloading that necessary. _resource_cache = {} """A dictionary used to cache resources so that they won't need to be loaded more than once."""
[docs]def find(resource_name, paths=None): """ Find the given resource by searching through the directories and zip files in paths, where a None or empty string specifies an absolute path. Returns a corresponding path name. If the given resource is not found, raise a ``LookupError``, whose message gives a pointer to the installation instructions for the NLTK downloader. Zip File Handling: - If ``resource_name`` contains a component with a ``.zip`` extension, then it is assumed to be a zipfile; and the remaining path components are used to look inside the zipfile. - If any element of ``nltk.data.path`` has a ``.zip`` extension, then it is assumed to be a zipfile. - If a given resource name that does not contain any zipfile component is not found initially, then ``find()`` will make a second attempt to find that resource, by replacing each component *p* in the path with *p.zip/p*. For example, this allows ``find()`` to map the resource name ``corpora/chat80/cities.pl`` to a zip file path pointer to ``corpora/chat80.zip/chat80/cities.pl``. - When using ``find()`` to locate a directory contained in a zipfile, the resource name must end with the forward slash character. Otherwise, ``find()`` will not locate the directory. :type resource_name: str or unicode :param resource_name: The name of the resource to search for. Resource names are posix-style relative path names, such as ``corpora/brown``. Directory names will be automatically converted to a platform-appropriate path separator. :rtype: str """ resource_name = normalize_resource_name(resource_name, True) # Resolve default paths at runtime in-case the user overrides # nltk.data.path if paths is None: paths = path # Check if the resource name includes a zipfile name m = re.match(r'(.*\.zip)/?(.*)$|', resource_name) zipfile, zipentry = m.groups() # Check each item in our path for path_ in paths: # Is the path item a zipfile? if path_ and (os.path.isfile(path_) and path_.endswith('.zip')): try: return ZipFilePathPointer(path_, resource_name) except IOError: # resource not in zipfile continue # Is the path item a directory or is resource_name an absolute path? elif not path_ or os.path.isdir(path_): if zipfile is None: p = os.path.join(path_, url2pathname(resource_name)) if os.path.exists(p): if p.endswith('.gz'): return GzipFileSystemPathPointer(p) else: return FileSystemPathPointer(p) else: p = os.path.join(path_, url2pathname(zipfile)) if os.path.exists(p): try: return ZipFilePathPointer(p, zipentry) except IOError: # resource not in zipfile continue # Fallback: if the path doesn't include a zip file, then try # again, assuming that one of the path components is inside a # zipfile of the same name. if zipfile is None: pieces = resource_name.split('/') for i in range(len(pieces)): modified_name = '/'.join(pieces[:i] + [pieces[i] + '.zip'] + pieces[i:]) try: return find(modified_name, paths) except LookupError: pass # Display a friendly error message if the resource wasn't found: msg = textwrap.fill( 'Resource %r not found. Please use the NLTK Downloader to ' 'obtain the resource: >>> nltk.download()' % (resource_name,), initial_indent=' ', subsequent_indent=' ', width=66) msg += '\n Searched in:' + ''.join('\n - %r' % d for d in paths) sep = '*' * 70 resource_not_found = '\n%s\n%s\n%s' % (sep, msg, sep) raise LookupError(resource_not_found)
[docs]def retrieve(resource_url, filename=None, verbose=True): """ Copy the given resource to a local file. If no filename is specified, then use the URL's filename. If there is already a file named ``filename``, then raise a ``ValueError``. :type resource_url: str :param resource_url: A URL specifying where the resource should be loaded from. The default protocol is "nltk:", which searches for the file in the the NLTK data package. """ resource_url = normalize_resource_url(resource_url) if filename is None: if resource_url.startswith('file:'): filename = os.path.split(resource_url)[-1] else: filename = re.sub(r'(^\w+:)?.*/', '', resource_url) if os.path.exists(filename): filename = os.path.abspath(filename) raise ValueError("File %r already exists!" % filename) if verbose: print('Retrieving %r, saving to %r' % (resource_url, filename)) # Open the input & output streams. infile = _open(resource_url) # Copy infile -> outfile, using 64k blocks. with open(filename, "wb") as outfile: while True: s = infile.read(1024 * 64) # 64k blocks. outfile.write(s) if not s: break infile.close()
#: A dictionary describing the formats that are supported by NLTK's #: load() method. Keys are format names, and values are format #: descriptions. FORMATS = { 'pickle': "A serialized python object, stored using the pickle module.", 'json': "A serialized python object, stored using the json module.", 'yaml': "A serialized python object, stored using the yaml module.", 'cfg': "A context free grammar.", 'pcfg': "A probabilistic CFG.", 'fcfg': "A feature CFG.", 'fol': "A list of first order logic expressions, parsed with " "nltk.sem.logic.Expression.fromstring.", 'logic': "A list of first order logic expressions, parsed with " "nltk.sem.logic.LogicParser. Requires an additional logic_parser " "parameter", 'val': "A semantic valuation, parsed by nltk.sem.Valuation.fromstring.", 'raw': "The raw (byte string) contents of a file.", 'text': "The raw (unicode string) contents of a file. " } #: A dictionary mapping from file extensions to format names, used #: by load() when format="auto" to decide the format for a #: given resource url. AUTO_FORMATS = { 'pickle': 'pickle', 'json': 'json', 'yaml': 'yaml', 'cfg': 'cfg', 'pcfg': 'pcfg', 'fcfg': 'fcfg', 'fol': 'fol', 'logic': 'logic', 'val': 'val', 'txt': 'text', 'text': 'text', }
[docs]def load(resource_url, format='auto', cache=True, verbose=False, logic_parser=None, fstruct_reader=None, encoding=None): """ Load a given resource from the NLTK data package. The following resource formats are currently supported: - ``pickle`` - ``json`` - ``yaml`` - ``cfg`` (context free grammars) - ``pcfg`` (probabilistic CFGs) - ``fcfg`` (feature-based CFGs) - ``fol`` (formulas of First Order Logic) - ``logic`` (Logical formulas to be parsed by the given logic_parser) - ``val`` (valuation of First Order Logic model) - ``text`` (the file contents as a unicode string) - ``raw`` (the raw file contents as a byte string) If no format is specified, ``load()`` will attempt to determine a format based on the resource name's file extension. If that fails, ``load()`` will raise a ``ValueError`` exception. For all text formats (everything except ``pickle``, ``json``, ``yaml`` and ``raw``), it tries to decode the raw contents using UTF-8, and if that doesn't work, it tries with ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1), unless the ``encoding`` is specified. :type resource_url: str :param resource_url: A URL specifying where the resource should be loaded from. The default protocol is "nltk:", which searches for the file in the the NLTK data package. :type cache: bool :param cache: If true, add this resource to a cache. If load() finds a resource in its cache, then it will return it from the cache rather than loading it. The cache uses weak references, so a resource wil automatically be expunged from the cache when no more objects are using it. :type verbose: bool :param verbose: If true, print a message when loading a resource. Messages are not displayed when a resource is retrieved from the cache. :type logic_parser: LogicParser :param logic_parser: The parser that will be used to parse logical expressions. :type fstruct_reader: FeatStructReader :param fstruct_reader: The parser that will be used to parse the feature structure of an fcfg. :type encoding: str :param encoding: the encoding of the input; only used for text formats. """ resource_url = normalize_resource_url(resource_url) resource_url = add_py3_data(resource_url) # Determine the format of the resource. if format == 'auto': resource_url_parts = resource_url.split('.') ext = resource_url_parts[-1] if ext == 'gz': ext = resource_url_parts[-2] format = AUTO_FORMATS.get(ext) if format is None: raise ValueError('Could not determine format for %s based ' 'on its file\nextension; use the "format" ' 'argument to specify the format explicitly.' % resource_url) if format not in FORMATS: raise ValueError('Unknown format type: %s!' % (format,)) # If we've cached the resource, then just return it. if cache: resource_val = _resource_cache.get((resource_url, format)) if resource_val is not None: if verbose: print('<<Using cached copy of %s>>' % (resource_url,)) return resource_val # Let the user know what's going on. if verbose: print('<<Loading %s>>' % (resource_url,)) # Load the resource. opened_resource = _open(resource_url) if format == 'raw': resource_val = opened_resource.read() elif format == 'pickle': resource_val = pickle.load(opened_resource) elif format == 'json': import json from nltk.jsontags import json_tags resource_val = json.load(opened_resource) tag = None if len(resource_val) != 1: tag = next(resource_val.keys()) if tag not in json_tags: raise ValueError('Unknown json tag.') elif format == 'yaml': import yaml resource_val = yaml.load(opened_resource) else: # The resource is a text format. binary_data = opened_resource.read() if encoding is not None: string_data = binary_data.decode(encoding) else: try: string_data = binary_data.decode('utf-8') except UnicodeDecodeError: string_data = binary_data.decode('latin-1') if format == 'text': resource_val = string_data elif format == 'cfg': resource_val = nltk.grammar.CFG.fromstring( string_data, encoding=encoding) elif format == 'pcfg': resource_val = nltk.grammar.PCFG.fromstring( string_data, encoding=encoding) elif format == 'fcfg': resource_val = nltk.grammar.FeatureGrammar.fromstring( string_data, logic_parser=logic_parser, fstruct_reader=fstruct_reader, encoding=encoding) elif format == 'fol': resource_val = nltk.sem.read_logic( string_data, logic_parser=nltk.sem.logic.LogicParser(), encoding=encoding) elif format == 'logic': resource_val = nltk.sem.read_logic( string_data, logic_parser=logic_parser, encoding=encoding) elif format == 'val': resource_val = nltk.sem.read_valuation( string_data, encoding=encoding) else: raise AssertionError("Internal NLTK error: Format %s isn't " "handled by nltk.data.load()" % (format,)) opened_resource.close() # If requested, add it to the cache. if cache: try: _resource_cache[(resource_url, format)] = resource_val # TODO: add this line # print('<<Caching a copy of %s>>' % (resource_url,)) except TypeError: # We can't create weak references to some object types, like # strings and tuples. For now, just don't cache them. pass return resource_val
[docs]def show_cfg(resource_url, escape='##'): """ Write out a grammar file, ignoring escaped and empty lines. :type resource_url: str :param resource_url: A URL specifying where the resource should be loaded from. The default protocol is "nltk:", which searches for the file in the the NLTK data package. :type escape: str :param escape: Prepended string that signals lines to be ignored """ resource_url = normalize_resource_url(resource_url) resource_val = load(resource_url, format='text', cache=False) lines = resource_val.splitlines() for l in lines: if l.startswith(escape): continue if re.match('^$', l): continue print(l)
[docs]def clear_cache(): """ Remove all objects from the resource cache. :see: load() """ _resource_cache.clear()
def _open(resource_url): """ Helper function that returns an open file object for a resource, given its resource URL. If the given resource URL uses the "nltk:" protocol, or uses no protocol, then use ``nltk.data.find`` to find its path, and open it with the given mode; if the resource URL uses the 'file' protocol, then open the file with the given mode; otherwise, delegate to ``urllib2.urlopen``. :type resource_url: str :param resource_url: A URL specifying where the resource should be loaded from. The default protocol is "nltk:", which searches for the file in the the NLTK data package. """ resource_url = normalize_resource_url(resource_url) protocol, path_ = split_resource_url(resource_url) if protocol is None or protocol.lower() == 'nltk': return find(path_, path + ['']).open() elif protocol.lower() == 'file': # urllib might not use mode='rb', so handle this one ourselves: return find(path_, ['']).open() else: return urlopen(resource_url) ###################################################################### # Lazy Resource Loader ###################################################################### # We shouldn't apply @python_2_unicode_compatible # decorator to LazyLoader, this is resource.__class__ responsibility.
[docs]class LazyLoader(object): @py3_data def __init__(self, _path): self._path = _path def __load(self): resource = load(self._path) # This is where the magic happens! Transform ourselves into # the object by modifying our own __dict__ and __class__ to # match that of `resource`. self.__dict__ = resource.__dict__ self.__class__ = resource.__class__ def __getattr__(self, attr): self.__load() # This looks circular, but its not, since __load() changes our # __class__ to something new: return getattr(self, attr) def __repr__(self): self.__load() # This looks circular, but its not, since __load() changes our # __class__ to something new: return repr(self)
###################################################################### # Open-On-Demand ZipFile ######################################################################
[docs]class OpenOnDemandZipFile(zipfile.ZipFile): """ A subclass of ``zipfile.ZipFile`` that closes its file pointer whenever it is not using it; and re-opens it when it needs to read data from the zipfile. This is useful for reducing the number of open file handles when many zip files are being accessed at once. ``OpenOnDemandZipFile`` must be constructed from a filename, not a file-like object (to allow re-opening). ``OpenOnDemandZipFile`` is read-only (i.e. ``write()`` and ``writestr()`` are disabled. """ @py3_data def __init__(self, filename): if not isinstance(filename, string_types): raise TypeError('ReopenableZipFile filename must be a string') zipfile.ZipFile.__init__(self, filename) assert self.filename == filename self.close() # After closing a ZipFile object, the _fileRefCnt needs to be cleared # for Python2and3 compatible code. self._fileRefCnt = 0
[docs] def read(self, name): assert self.fp is None self.fp = open(self.filename, 'rb') value = zipfile.ZipFile.read(self, name) # Ensure that _fileRefCnt needs to be set for Python2and3 compatible code. # Since we only opened one file here, we add 1. self._fileRefCnt += 1 self.close() return value
[docs] def write(self, *args, **kwargs): """:raise NotImplementedError: OpenOnDemandZipfile is read-only""" raise NotImplementedError('OpenOnDemandZipfile is read-only')
[docs] def writestr(self, *args, **kwargs): """:raise NotImplementedError: OpenOnDemandZipfile is read-only""" raise NotImplementedError('OpenOnDemandZipfile is read-only')
def __repr__(self): return repr(str('OpenOnDemandZipFile(%r)') % self.filename)
###################################################################### #{ Seekable Unicode Stream Reader ######################################################################
[docs]class SeekableUnicodeStreamReader(object): """ A stream reader that automatically encodes the source byte stream into unicode (like ``codecs.StreamReader``); but still supports the ``seek()`` and ``tell()`` operations correctly. This is in contrast to ``codecs.StreamReader``, which provide *broken* ``seek()`` and ``tell()`` methods. This class was motivated by ``StreamBackedCorpusView``, which makes extensive use of ``seek()`` and ``tell()``, and needs to be able to handle unicode-encoded files. Note: this class requires stateless decoders. To my knowledge, this shouldn't cause a problem with any of python's builtin unicode encodings. """ DEBUG = True # : If true, then perform extra sanity checks. @py3_data def __init__(self, stream, encoding, errors='strict'): # Rewind the stream to its beginning. stream.seek(0) self.stream = stream """The underlying stream.""" self.encoding = encoding """The name of the encoding that should be used to encode the underlying stream.""" self.errors = errors """The error mode that should be used when decoding data from the underlying stream. Can be 'strict', 'ignore', or 'replace'.""" self.decode = codecs.getdecoder(encoding) """The function that is used to decode byte strings into unicode strings.""" self.bytebuffer = b'' """A buffer to use bytes that have been read but have not yet been decoded. This is only used when the final bytes from a read do not form a complete encoding for a character.""" self.linebuffer = None """A buffer used by ``readline()`` to hold characters that have been read, but have not yet been returned by ``read()`` or ``readline()``. This buffer consists of a list of unicode strings, where each string corresponds to a single line. The final element of the list may or may not be a complete line. Note that the existence of a linebuffer makes the ``tell()`` operation more complex, because it must backtrack to the beginning of the buffer to determine the correct file position in the underlying byte stream.""" self._rewind_checkpoint = 0 """The file position at which the most recent read on the underlying stream began. This is used, together with ``_rewind_numchars``, to backtrack to the beginning of ``linebuffer`` (which is required by ``tell()``).""" self._rewind_numchars = None """The number of characters that have been returned since the read that started at ``_rewind_checkpoint``. This is used, together with ``_rewind_checkpoint``, to backtrack to the beginning of ``linebuffer`` (which is required by ``tell()``).""" self._bom = self._check_bom() """The length of the byte order marker at the beginning of the stream (or None for no byte order marker).""" #///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// # Read methods #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
[docs] def read(self, size=None): """ Read up to ``size`` bytes, decode them using this reader's encoding, and return the resulting unicode string. :param size: The maximum number of bytes to read. If not specified, then read as many bytes as possible. :type size: int :rtype: unicode """ chars = self._read(size) # If linebuffer is not empty, then include it in the result if self.linebuffer: chars = ''.join(self.linebuffer) + chars self.linebuffer = None self._rewind_numchars = None return chars
[docs] def readline(self, size=None): """ Read a line of text, decode it using this reader's encoding, and return the resulting unicode string. :param size: The maximum number of bytes to read. If no newline is encountered before ``size`` bytes have been read, then the returned value may not be a complete line of text. :type size: int """ # If we have a non-empty linebuffer, then return the first # line from it. (Note that the last element of linebuffer may # not be a complete line; so let _read() deal with it.) if self.linebuffer and len(self.linebuffer) > 1: line = self.linebuffer.pop(0) self._rewind_numchars += len(line) return line readsize = size or 72 chars = '' # If there's a remaining incomplete line in the buffer, add it. if self.linebuffer: chars += self.linebuffer.pop() self.linebuffer = None while True: startpos = self.stream.tell() - len(self.bytebuffer) new_chars = self._read(readsize) # If we're at a '\r', then read one extra character, since # it might be a '\n', to get the proper line ending. if new_chars and new_chars.endswith('\r'): new_chars += self._read(1) chars += new_chars lines = chars.splitlines(True) if len(lines) > 1: line = lines[0] self.linebuffer = lines[1:] self._rewind_numchars = (len(new_chars) - (len(chars) - len(line))) self._rewind_checkpoint = startpos break elif len(lines) == 1: line0withend = lines[0] line0withoutend = lines[0].splitlines(False)[0] if line0withend != line0withoutend: # complete line line = line0withend break if not new_chars or size is not None: line = chars break # Read successively larger blocks of text. if readsize < 8000: readsize *= 2 return line
[docs] def readlines(self, sizehint=None, keepends=True): """ Read this file's contents, decode them using this reader's encoding, and return it as a list of unicode lines. :rtype: list(unicode) :param sizehint: Ignored. :param keepends: If false, then strip newlines. """ return self.read().splitlines(keepends)
[docs] def next(self): """Return the next decoded line from the underlying stream.""" line = self.readline() if line: return line else: raise StopIteration
def __next__(self): return self.next() def __iter__(self): """Return self""" return self
[docs] def xreadlines(self): """Return self""" return self
#///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// # Pass-through methods & properties #///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// @property def closed(self): """True if the underlying stream is closed.""" return self.stream.closed @property def name(self): """The name of the underlying stream.""" return self.stream.name @property def mode(self): """The mode of the underlying stream.""" return self.stream.mode
[docs] def close(self): """ Close the underlying stream. """ self.stream.close()
#///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// # Seek and tell #/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
[docs] def seek(self, offset, whence=0): """ Move the stream to a new file position. If the reader is maintaining any buffers, then they will be cleared. :param offset: A byte count offset. :param whence: If 0, then the offset is from the start of the file (offset should be positive), if 1, then the offset is from the current position (offset may be positive or negative); and if 2, then the offset is from the end of the file (offset should typically be negative). """ if whence == 1: raise ValueError('Relative seek is not supported for ' 'SeekableUnicodeStreamReader -- consider ' 'using char_seek_forward() instead.') self.stream.seek(offset, whence) self.linebuffer = None self.bytebuffer = b'' self._rewind_numchars = None self._rewind_checkpoint = self.stream.tell()
[docs] def char_seek_forward(self, offset): """ Move the read pointer forward by ``offset`` characters. """ if offset < 0: raise ValueError('Negative offsets are not supported') # Clear all buffers. self.seek(self.tell()) # Perform the seek operation. self._char_seek_forward(offset)
def _char_seek_forward(self, offset, est_bytes=None): """ Move the file position forward by ``offset`` characters, ignoring all buffers. :param est_bytes: A hint, giving an estimate of the number of bytes that will be needed to move forward by ``offset`` chars. Defaults to ``offset``. """ if est_bytes is None: est_bytes = offset bytes = b'' while True: # Read in a block of bytes. newbytes = self.stream.read(est_bytes - len(bytes)) bytes += newbytes # Decode the bytes to characters. chars, bytes_decoded = self._incr_decode(bytes) # If we got the right number of characters, then seek # backwards over any truncated characters, and return. if len(chars) == offset: self.stream.seek(-len(bytes) + bytes_decoded, 1) return # If we went too far, then we can back-up until we get it # right, using the bytes we've already read. if len(chars) > offset: while len(chars) > offset: # Assume at least one byte/char. est_bytes += offset - len(chars) chars, bytes_decoded = self._incr_decode(bytes[:est_bytes]) self.stream.seek(-len(bytes) + bytes_decoded, 1) return # Otherwise, we haven't read enough bytes yet; loop again. est_bytes += offset - len(chars)
[docs] def tell(self): """ Return the current file position on the underlying byte stream. If this reader is maintaining any buffers, then the returned file position will be the position of the beginning of those buffers. """ # If nothing's buffered, then just return our current filepos: if self.linebuffer is None: return self.stream.tell() - len(self.bytebuffer) # Otherwise, we'll need to backtrack the filepos until we # reach the beginning of the buffer. # Store our original file position, so we can return here. orig_filepos = self.stream.tell() # Calculate an estimate of where we think the newline is. bytes_read = ((orig_filepos - len(self.bytebuffer)) - self._rewind_checkpoint) buf_size = sum(len(line) for line in self.linebuffer) est_bytes = int((bytes_read * self._rewind_numchars / (self._rewind_numchars + buf_size))) self.stream.seek(self._rewind_checkpoint) self._char_seek_forward(self._rewind_numchars, est_bytes) filepos = self.stream.tell() # Sanity check if self.DEBUG: self.stream.seek(filepos) check1 = self._incr_decode(self.stream.read(50))[0] check2 = ''.join(self.linebuffer) assert check1.startswith(check2) or check2.startswith(check1) # Return to our original filepos (so we don't have to throw # out our buffer.) self.stream.seek(orig_filepos) # Return the calculated filepos return filepos
#///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// # Helper methods #///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// def _read(self, size=None): """ Read up to ``size`` bytes from the underlying stream, decode them using this reader's encoding, and return the resulting unicode string. ``linebuffer`` is not included in the result. """ if size == 0: return '' # Skip past the byte order marker, if present. if self._bom and self.stream.tell() == 0: self.stream.read(self._bom) # Read the requested number of bytes. if size is None: new_bytes = self.stream.read() else: new_bytes = self.stream.read(size) bytes = self.bytebuffer + new_bytes # Decode the bytes into unicode characters chars, bytes_decoded = self._incr_decode(bytes) # If we got bytes but couldn't decode any, then read further. if (size is not None) and (not chars) and (len(new_bytes) > 0): while not chars: new_bytes = self.stream.read(1) if not new_bytes: break # end of file. bytes += new_bytes chars, bytes_decoded = self._incr_decode(bytes) # Record any bytes we didn't consume. self.bytebuffer = bytes[bytes_decoded:] # Return the result return chars def _incr_decode(self, bytes): """ Decode the given byte string into a unicode string, using this reader's encoding. If an exception is encountered that appears to be caused by a truncation error, then just decode the byte string without the bytes that cause the trunctaion error. Return a tuple ``(chars, num_consumed)``, where ``chars`` is the decoded unicode string, and ``num_consumed`` is the number of bytes that were consumed. """ while True: try: return self.decode(bytes, 'strict') except UnicodeDecodeError as exc: # If the exception occurs at the end of the string, # then assume that it's a truncation error. if exc.end == len(bytes): return self.decode(bytes[:exc.start], self.errors) # Otherwise, if we're being strict, then raise it. elif self.errors == 'strict': raise # If we're not strict, then re-process it with our # errors setting. This *may* raise an exception. else: return self.decode(bytes, self.errors) _BOM_TABLE = { 'utf8': [(codecs.BOM_UTF8, None)], 'utf16': [(codecs.BOM_UTF16_LE, 'utf16-le'), (codecs.BOM_UTF16_BE, 'utf16-be')], 'utf16le': [(codecs.BOM_UTF16_LE, None)], 'utf16be': [(codecs.BOM_UTF16_BE, None)], 'utf32': [(codecs.BOM_UTF32_LE, 'utf32-le'), (codecs.BOM_UTF32_BE, 'utf32-be')], 'utf32le': [(codecs.BOM_UTF32_LE, None)], 'utf32be': [(codecs.BOM_UTF32_BE, None)], } def _check_bom(self): # Normalize our encoding name enc = re.sub('[ -]', '', self.encoding.lower()) # Look up our encoding in the BOM table. bom_info = self._BOM_TABLE.get(enc) if bom_info: # Read a prefix, to check against the BOM(s) bytes = self.stream.read(16) self.stream.seek(0) # Check for each possible BOM. for (bom, new_encoding) in bom_info: if bytes.startswith(bom): if new_encoding: self.encoding = new_encoding return len(bom) return None
__all__ = ['path', 'PathPointer', 'FileSystemPathPointer', 'BufferedGzipFile', 'GzipFileSystemPathPointer', 'GzipFileSystemPathPointer', 'find', 'retrieve', 'FORMATS', 'AUTO_FORMATS', 'load', 'show_cfg', 'clear_cache', 'LazyLoader', 'OpenOnDemandZipFile', 'GzipFileSystemPathPointer', 'SeekableUnicodeStreamReader']